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Discussione: Communist Party of USA

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    Predefinito Communist Party of USA







    A DOCUMENTARY






    90 Years of Party History in Images



    SOME HISTORY

    The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States, established in 1919. As the chief official communist party in the USA for most of the 20th century, it has a long, complex history that is often inter-layered with the simultaneous histories of similar communist parties worldwide, as well as with the U.S. labor movement generally.

    For the first half of the 20th century, the CPUSA was the largest and most influential communist party in its country. It played a very prominent role in the U.S. labor movement from the 1920s through the 1940s, having a major hand in founding most of the country's first industrial unions (which would later expel communists by adopting the Smith Act) while also becoming known for opposing racism and fighting for integration in workplaces and communities during the height of the Jim Crow period of U.S. racial segregation. Historian Ellen Schrecker concludes that decades of recent scholarship[1] offers a "nuanced portrayal of the party as both a Stalinist sect tied to a vicious regime and the most dynamic organization within the American Left during the 1930s and '40s".[2] In regards to the former charge, the CPUSA, claiming proletarian internationalism (while the U.S. Government called it espionage), sponsored an elaborate intelligence network on behalf of the Soviet Union, involving over 500 members acting as agents. The most prominent example dealt with the Manhattan Project in which the network was accused in giving the blueprints of the atomic bomb to the Soviets; Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were thereafter convicted and executed as the chief architects of this plan. Later evidence proved that the Rosenbergs did not have the plans but the use of fear of Communism and its spread, helped to render a guilty verdict.[3]

    By August 1919, only months after its founding, the CPUSA had 60,000 members, including anarchists and other radical leftists, while the more moderate Socialist Party of America had only 40,000 members. The sections of the CP's International Workers Order meanwhile organized for communism around linguistic and ethnic lines, providing mutual aid and tailored cultural activities to an IWO membership that peaked at 200,000 at its height.

    But the CP's early labor and organizing successes did not last. As the decades progressed, the combined effects of the second Red Scare, McCarthyism, Nikita Khrushchev's 1956 Secret Speech denouncing the previous decades of Joseph Stalin's rule, and the adversities of the continued Cold War mentality, steadily weakened of the Communist Party's internal structure and confidence. CPUSA's membership in the Comintern and its close adherence to the political positions of the Soviet Union enabled anti-communist critics to constantly present the party as not only a threatening, subversive domestic entity, but also as a "foreign" agent fundamentally alien to the "American way of life". Internal and external crises swirled together, to the point where members who did not end up in prison for party activities tended either to disappear quietly from its ranks or to adopt more moderate political positions at odds with the CPUSA's party line. By 1957, membership had dwindled to less than 10,000, of whom some 1,500 were FBI informants.[4]

    The party attempted to recover with its opposition to the Vietnam War during the U.S. Civil rights movement in the 1960s, but the continued uncritical support of the CPUSA for an increasingly stultified and militaristic Soviet Union increasingly alienated them from the rest of the U.S. left, who saw this supportive position as outdated and even dangerous. At the same time, the party's aging membership demographics and noticeably hollow calls for "peaceful coexistence" failed to speak to a new Left in the United States.

    With the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev and his effort to radically alter the Soviet economic and political system from the mid-1980s, the CPUSA finally became estranged from the leadership of the Soviet Union itself; the USSR cut off major funding to the CPUSA in 1989 due to the CP's opposition to glasnost and perestroika. With the Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the party held its convention and attempted to resolve the issue of whether the Party should reject Marxism-Leninism. The majority reasserted the party's Marxist-Leninist outlook, prompting a minority faction which urged social democracts to exit the now reduced party.

    The CPUSA is based in New York City. Its newspaper, originally The Daily Worker, is now the People's World, while Political Affairs Magazine is a monthly magazine.

    The Comintern was not happy with two communist parties and in January, 1920 dispatched an order that the two parties, which consisted of about 12,000 members, merge under the name United Communist Party, and to follow the party line established in Moscow. Part of the Communist Party of America under the leadership of Charles Ruthenberg and Jay Lovestone did this but a faction under the leadership of Nicholas I. Hourwich and Alexander Bittelman continued to operate independently as the Communist Party of America. A more strongly worded directive from the Comintern eventually did the trick and the parties were merged in May, 1921. Only five percent of the members of the newly formed party were native English-speakers. Many of the members came from the ranks of the Industrial Workers of the World.[5][page needed][6] The first US socialist political party was the Socialist Labor Party, formed in 1876 and for many years a viable force in the international socialist movement. By the mid 1890s, however, the SLP came under the influence of Daniel De Leon, and his radical views led to widespread discontent amongst the members, leading to the formation of the reformist-oriented Socialist Party of America around the turn of the century[3] A left wing gradually emerged within the SP, much to the consternation of many Party leaders.

    In January 1919, Vladimir Lenin invited the left wing of the Socialist Party of America to join Comintern. During the spring of 1919 the Left Wing Caucus of the Socialist Party, buoyed by a large influx of new members from countries involved in the Russian Revolution, prepared to wrest control from the smaller controlling faction of moderate socialists. A referendum to join Comintern passed with 90% support, but the incumbent leadership suppressed the results. Elections for the party's National Executive Committee resulted in 12 leftists being elected out of a total of 15. Calls were made to expel moderates from the party. The moderate incumbents struck back by expelling several state organizations, half a dozen language federations, and many locals, in all two-thirds of the membership.

    The Socialist Party then called an emergency convention on August 30, 1919. The party's Left Wing Caucus made plans at a June conference of its own to regain control of the party, by sending delegations from the sections of the party that had been expelled to the convention to demand that they be seated. However, the language federations, eventually joined by C.E. Ruthenberg and Louis C. Fraina, turned away from that effort and formed their own party, the Communist Party of America, at a separate convention on September 1, 1919. Meanwhile plans led by John Reed and Benjamin Gitlow to crash the Socialist Party convention went ahead. Tipped off, the incumbents called the police, who obligingly expelled the leftists from the hall. The remaining leftist delegates walked out and, meeting with the expelled delegates, formed the Communist Labor Party on August 30, 1919.[5][page needed]
    [edit] The Red Scare and the underground party (1919–1923)

    From its inception, the Communist Party USA came under attack from state and federal governments and later the Federal Bureau of Investigation. In 1919, after a series of unattributed bombings and attempted assassinations of government officials, and judges (later traced to militant Galleanist adherents of radical anarchist Luigi Galleani), the US Department of Justice headed by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, acting under the Sedition Act of 1918, began arresting thousands of foreign-born party members, many of whom the government deported. The Communist Party was forced underground and took to the use of pseudonyms and secret meetings in an effort to evade the authorities.

    The party apparatus was to a great extent underground. It re-emerged in the last days of 1921 as a legal political party called the Workers Party of America. As the red scare and deportations of the early 1920s ebbed, the party became bolder and more open. An element of the party, however, remained permanently underground and came to be known as the "CPUSA secret apparatus."

    During this time Jews whose backgrounds derived from Eastern Europe are said to have played a very prominent and disproportionate role in the CPUSA.[7] A majority of the members of the Socialist Party were immigrants and that an "overwhelming" percentage of the CPUSA consisted of recent immigrants, a substantial percentage of whom were Jews.[8]
    [edit] The factional war (1923–1929)
    Executive Secretary C.E. Ruthenberg, 1924.

    Now that the above ground element was legal, the Communists decided that their central task was to develop roots within the working class. This move away from hopes of revolution in the near future to a more nuanced approach was accelerated by the decisions of the Fifth World Congress of the Comintern held in 1925. The Fifth World Congress decided that the period between 1917 and 1924 had been one of revolutionary upsurge, but that the new period was marked by the stabilization of capitalism and that revolutionary attempts in the near future were to be spurned. The American communists embarked then on the arduous work of locating and winning allies.

    That work was, however, complicated by factional struggles within the CPUSA. The party quickly developed a number of more or less fixed factional groupings within its leadership: a faction around the party's Executive Secretary C.E. Ruthenberg, which was largely organized by his supporter Jay Lovestone; and the Foster-Cannon faction, headed by William Z. Foster, who headed the Party's Trade Union Educational League, and James P. Cannon, who led the International Labor Defense (ILD) organization.[9]

    Foster, who had been deeply involved in the Steel Strike of 1919 and had been a long-time syndicalist and a Wobbly, had strong bonds with the progressive leaders of the Chicago Federation of Labor and, through them, with the Progressive Party (United States, 1924) and nascent farmer-labor parties. Under pressure from the Comintern, however, the party broke off relations with both groups in 1924. In 1925 the Comintern, through its representative Sergei Gusev, ordered the majority Foster faction to surrender control to Ruthenberg's faction; Foster complied. The factional infighting within the CPUSA did not end, however; the Communist leadership of the New York locals of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union lost the 1926 strike of cloakmakers in New York City in large part because of intra-party factional rivalries.[10]

    Ruthenberg died in 1927 and his ally, Lovestone, succeeded him as party secretary. Cannon attended the Sixth Congress of the Comintern in 1928, hoping to use his connections with leading circles within it to regain the advantage against the Lovestone faction. However Cannon and Maurice Spector of the Communist Party of Canada were accidentally given a copy of Trotsky's "Critique of the Draft Program of the Comintern", that they were instructed to read and return. Persuaded by its contents, they came to an agreement to return to America and campaign for the document's positions. A copy of the document was then smuggled out of the country in a child's toy.[11][12] Back in America, Cannon and his close associates in the ILD such as Max Shachtman and Martin Abern, dubbed the "three generals without an army,"[13] began to organize support for Trotsky's theses. However, as this attempt to develop a Left Opposition came to light, they and their supporters were expelled. Cannon and his followers organized the Communist League of America as a section of Trotsky's International Left Opposition.

    At the same Congress, Lovestone had impressed the leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as a strong supporter of Nikolai Bukharin, the general secretary of the Comintern. This was to have unfortunate consequences for Lovestone when, in 1929, Bukharin was on the losing end of a struggle with Stalin and was purged from his position on the Politburo and removed as head of the Comintern. In a reversal of the events of 1925, a Comintern delegation sent to the United States demanded that Lovestone resign as party secretary, in favor of his archrival Foster, despite the fact that Lovestone enjoyed the support of the vast majority of the American party's membership. Lovestone traveled to the Soviet Union and appealed directly to the Comintern. Stalin informed Lovestone that he "had a majority because the American Communist Party until now regarded you as the determined supporter of the Communist International. And it was only because the Party regarded you as friends of the Comintern that you had a majority in the ranks of the American Communist Party."[14]

    When Lovestone returned to the United States, he and his ally Benjamin Gitlow were purged despite holding the leadership of the party. Ostensibly, this was not due to Lovestone's insubordination in challenging a decision by Stalin, but for his support for American Exceptionalism, the thesis that socialism could be achieved peacefully in the USA. Lovestone and Gitlow formed their own group called the "Communist Party (Opposition)", a section of the pro-Bukharin International Communist Opposition, which was initially larger than the Trotskyists but failed to survive past 1941. Lovestone had initially called his faction the "Communist Party (Majority Group)" in the expectation that the majority of the CPUSA's members would join him, but only a few hundred people joined his new organization.
    [edit] The Third Period (1928–1935)

    The upheavals within the CPUSA in 1928 were an echo of a much more significant change: Stalin's decision to break off any form of collaboration with western socialist parties, which were now condemned as "social fascists." This policy had particularly severe consequences in Germany, where the German Communist Party not only refused to work in alliance with the German Social Democratic Party, but attacked it and its members.

    The impact of this policy in the U.S. was counted in membership figures. In 1928 there were about 24,000 members. By 1932 the total had fallen to 6,000 members.[15]

    Opposing Stalin's Third Period policies in the Communist Party USA was James P. Cannon. For this action, he was expelled from the party. He then founded the Communist League of America with Max Shachtman and Martin Abern, and started publishing The Militant. It declared itself to be an external faction of the Communist Party until, as the Trotskyists saw it, Stalin's policies in Germany helped Hitler take power. At that point they started working towards the founding of a new international, the Fourth International.

    In the United States the principal impact of the Third Period was to end the CPUSA's efforts to organize within the AFL through the TUEL and to turn its efforts into organizing dual unions through the Trade Union Unity League. Foster went along with this change, even though it contradicted the policies he had fought for previously.

    By 1930, the party adopted the title of Communist Party of the USA, with the slogan of "the united front from below". The Party devoted much of its energy in the Great Depression to organizing the unemployed, attempting to found "red" unions, championing the rights of African-Americans and fighting evictions of farmers and the working poor.[16] At the same time, the Party attempted to weave its sectarian revolutionary politics into its day-to-day defense of workers, usually with only limited success. They recruited more disaffected members of the Socialist Party and an organization of African-American socialists called the African Blood Brotherhood, some of whose members, particularly Harry Haywood, would later play important roles in communist work among blacks.

    In 1932, the retiring head of the CPUSA, William Z. Foster, published a book entitled Toward Soviet America, which laid out the Communist Party's plans for revolution and the building of a new socialist society based on the model of Soviet Russia. In that same year Earl Browder became General Secretary of the Party. At first Browder moved the party closer to Soviet interests, and helped to develop its secret apparatus or underground network. He also assisted in the recruitment of espionage sources and agents for the Soviet NKVD. Browder's own younger sister Margerite was an NKVD operative in Europe until removed from those duties at Browder's request.[17] It was at this point that the CPUSA's foreign policy platform came under the complete control of Stalin, who enforced his directives through his secret police and foreign intelligence service, the NKVD. The NKVD controlled the secret apparatus of the CPUSA, including responsibility for political murders, kidnappings, and assassinations.[18][19]
    [edit] The Popular Front (1935–1939)
    CPUSA General Secretary Earl Browder

    The ideological rigidity of the third period began to crack, however, with two events: the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt as president of the United States in 1932 and Adolf Hitler's rise to power in Germany in 1933. Roosevelt's election and the passage of the National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933 sparked a tremendous upsurge in union organizing in 1933 and 1934. While the party line still favored creation of autonomous revolutionary unions, party activists chose to fold up those organizations and follow the mass of workers into the AFL unions they had been attacking.

    The Seventh Congress of the Comintern made the change in line official in 1935, when it declared the need for a popular front of all groups opposed to fascism. The CPUSA abandoned its opposition to the New Deal and provided many of the organizers for the Congress of Industrial Organizations.

    The party also sought unity with forces to its right. Earl Russell Browder offered to run as Norman Thomas' running mate on a joint Socialist Party-Communist Party ticket in the 1936 presidential election but Thomas rejected this overture.

    The gesture did not mean that much in practical terms, since the CPUSA was, by 1936, effectively supporting Roosevelt in much of his trade union work. While continuing to run its own candidates for office, the CPUSA pursued a policy of representing the Democratic Party as the lesser evil in elections.

    Party members also rallied to the defense of the Spanish Republic during this period after a Nationalist military uprising moved to overthrow it, resulting in the Spanish Civil War (1936 to 1939). The CPUSA, along with leftists throughout the world, raised funds for medical relief while many of its members made their way to Spain with the aid of the party to join the Lincoln Brigade, one of the International Brigades. Among its other achievements, the Lincoln Brigade was the first American military force to include blacks and whites integrated on an equal basis.

    Intellectually, the Popular Front period saw the development of a strong communist influence in intellectual and artistic life. This was often through various organizations influenced or controlled by the Party or, as they were pejoratively known, "fronts."

    The CPUSA under Browder supported Stalin's show trials in the Soviet Union, called the Moscow Trials.[20] Therein, between August 1936 and mid-1938 the Soviet government indicted, tried, and shot virtually all of the remaining Old Bolsheviks.[20] Beyond the show trials lay a broader purge, the Great Purge, that killed millions.[20] Browder uncritically supported Stalin, likening Trotskyism to "cholera germs" and calling the purge "a signal service to the cause of progressive humanity."[21] He compared the show trial defendants to domestic traitors Benedict Arnold, Aaron Burr, disloyal War of 1812 Federalists, and Confederate secessionists, while likening persons who "smeared" Stalin's name to those who had slandered Abraham Lincoln and Franklin Roosevelt.[21]
    Ultima modifica di Stalinator; 13-05-11 alle 21:41

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  2. #2
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    Predefinito Rif: Communist Party of United States of America

    AN ANALYSIS OF MID-TERM ELECTIONS



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    Predefinito Rif: Communist Party of USA

    Attualmente il partito come è messo? Ha eventuali rapporti con l'IWW?

    Avevo letto che negli ultimi anni ha diversi rapporti con i movimenti anarcosindacalisti e anarco comunisti americani, ma non ricordo dove avevo letto tutto questo (su revleft, c'era un link di un pdf.. se lo trovo lo posto)

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    Predefinito Rif: Communist Party of USA

    Ma si presentano alle elezioni ? Sarebbe una buona alternativa fossi americano, dato che Obama in Politica estera è uguale ai Repubblicani.
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    Predefinito Rif: Communist Party of USA

    Citazione Originariamente Scritto da SteDiessino Visualizza Messaggio
    Ma si presentano alle elezioni ? Sarebbe una buona alternativa fossi americano, dato che Obama in Politica estera è uguale ai Repubblicani.
    Non più, l' ultima volta fu nel 1984
    Ultima modifica di Murru; 24-06-11 alle 23:05

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    Predefinito Rif: Communist Party of USA

    Mmmm capisco, effettivamente li è una impresa impossibile.
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    Predefinito Rif: Communist Party of USA

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    Mmmm capisco, effettivamente li è una impresa impossibile.
    Impossibile no, ma difficile.
    Comunque quando inizialmente obama veniva visto dagli americani come socialista (dai repubblicani si intende), il partito comunista americano ha iniziato ad avere più linfa vitale, le vendite del suo giornale aumentarono così come le iscrizioni al partito, in più dal 2007-8 in poi (dopo l'assalto della Goldman SUCKS del congresso americano) durante gli scioperi dell' iww si iniziano a rivedere dopo quasi un secolo bandiere con falce e martello.
    Non è molto, ma se consideriamo cosa intendono per "comunismo"(qualcosa tipo nazismo, però più crudele e folle) gli americani dopo decine di anni di propaganda, è qualcosa. Il movimento socialista americano tra la fine dell'ottocento e i primi del novecento ha fatto moltissimo, spero vivamente in una continua presa di coscienza :giagia:
    Ultima modifica di gerty80; 25-06-11 alle 01:11

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    Predefinito Rif: Communist Party of USA

    Ma magari, compagno, magari.

    E comunque la vena pseudo-para-socialista di Obama è finita da un pezzo, diciamo pure che non è mai iniziata.
    Basta pensare che oggi con la maggioranza Repubblicana è costretto praticamente a fare la loro Politica economica.
    E' diventato una barzelletta ormai.
    VOTA NO AL REFERENDUM DEL 4 DICEMBRE
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    Predefinito Rif: Communist Party of USA

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    Ma magari, compagno, magari.

    E comunque la vena pseudo-para-socialista di Obama è finita da un pezzo, diciamo pure che non è mai iniziata.
    Basta pensare che oggi con la maggioranza Repubblicana è costretto praticamente a fare la loro Politica economica.
    E' diventato una barzelletta ormai.
    Oh, aspe, ho scritto male, intendevo durante la campagna elettorale che i repubblicani vedevano obama come uno stalin, però nero. Hai ragione, il premio nobel per la pace ha continuato la politica di bush (leggi ha continuato a far comandare wall street). Bisogna considerare però che la propaganda anticomunista delle elezioni di obama ha dato un po' linfa vitale al socialismo americano. Sul revleft avevo letto un thread in cui durante l'elezione i repubblicani denunciavano l'aumento di vendite di libri di autori socialisti e il partito comunista americano iniziò ad avere pubblicità grazie ai repubblicani per via di numerosi servizi contro il partito. Bisogna considerare che il tutto è successo quando alla fine del mandato di bush il congresso stava per votare il salvataggio multimiliardario dell'industria finanziaria americana (andato comunque a puttane) e obama parlava di ridistrubizione della ricchezza dopo terribili anni in cui milioni di lavoratori americani persero la propria casa e i propri risparmi e il proprio lavoro e i sidacati ebbero sempre meno valore e voce in capitolo(grazie reagan, grazie bush).

    Edit: che post scritto male :sofico:
    Ultima modifica di gerty80; 25-06-11 alle 15:07

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    Predefinito Rif: Communist Party of USA

    Si ho capito quello che intendevi, infatti inizialmente Obama qualche parola giusta in campagna elettorale l'ha detta, poi ovviamente una volta eletto niente di che.
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